Participate in Research
Participating in research is a great way to try the latest lucid dreaming techniques and contribute to this fascinating area of science! I conduct my studies via the internet, allowing people all over the world to take part.
Thank you to everyone who participated in my International Lucid Dream Induction Study. The findings from this study have now been published and are available here.
To participate in future lucid dreaming studies and to hear about my latest findings, subscribe to my eNewsletter below.
If you are interested in learning how to have lucid dreams, you can also check out my Lucid Dreaming Training Program.
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Summary: The International Lucid Dream Induction Study (ILDIS) investigated and compared the effectiveness of five different combinations of lucid dream induction techniques including reality testing (RT), Wake Back to Bed (WBTB), the Mnemonic Induction of Lucid Dreams (MILD) technique, the Senses Initiated Lucid Dream (SSILD) technique, and a hybrid technique combining elements of both MILD and SSILD. Participants with an interest in lucid dreaming (N = 355) completed a pre-test questionnaire and then a baseline sleep and dream recall logbook for 1 week before practicing the lucid dream induction techniques for another week. Results indicated that the MILD technique and the SSILD technique were similarly effective for inducing lucid dreams. The hybrid technique showed no advantage over MILD or SSILD. Predictors of successful lucid dream induction included superior general dream recall and the ability to fall asleep within 10 min of completing the lucid dream induction techniques. Successful lucid dream induction had no adverse effect on sleep quality. Findings indicated that the techniques were effective regardless of baseline lucid dreaming frequency or prior experience with lucid dreaming techniques. Recommendations for further research on lucid dream induction techniques are provided.
Reference: Aspy, D. J. (2020). Findings from the International Lucid Dream Induction Study. Frontiers in Psychology.
Summary: Anecdotal evidence indicates that supplementation with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) before bed can enhance dream vividness and recall. In a single pilot study, Ebben, Lequerica, and Spielman (2002) found that vitamin B6 had a dose-dependent effect of increasing scores on a composite measure of dream vividness, bizarreness, emotionality, and color. The present research replicated this study using a larger and more diverse sample of 100 participants from across Australia. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects on dreaming and sleep of ingesting 240 mg vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride) before bed for five consecutive days. We also included an exploratory condition involving a B complex preparation containing a range of B vitamins. We found that vitamin B6 significantly increased the amount of dream content participants recalled but did not significantly affect dream vividness, bizarreness, or color, nor did it significantly affect other sleep-related variables. In contrast, participants in the B complex group showed significantly lower self-rated sleep quality and significantly higher tiredness on waking. We discuss the potential for using vitamin B6 in research on lucid dreaming.
Reference: Aspy, D. J., Delfabbro, P., & Madden, N. A. (2018). Effects of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and a B complex preparation on dreaming and sleep. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 125, 451-462.
Summary: Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill and has a wide range of potential applications. However, research in this area has been limited by a lack of effective and reliable lucid dream induction techniques. The present study provides a thorough investigation into three of the most promising cognitive lucid dream induction techniques – reality testing, Wake Back to Bed (WBTB), and the Mnemonic Induction of Lucid Dreams (MILD) technique. A sample of 169 Australian participants completed a pre-test questionnaire, provided baseline logbook data in Week 1, and practiced lucid dream induction techniques in Week 2. Results showed that the combination of reality testing, WBTB and the MILD technique was effective at inducing lucid dreams. Several factors that influenced the effectiveness of the MILD technique were identified, including general dream recall and the amount of time taken to fall asleep after finishing the technique. Recommendations for future research on lucid dream induction are provided.
Reference: Aspy, D. J., Delfabbro, P., Proeve, M. & Mohr, P. (2017). Reality testing and the mnemonic induction of lucid dreams: Findings from the National Australian Lucid Dream Induction Study. Dreaming, 27, 206-231.
Summary: An experiment involving 115 undergraduate students (74.8% females; mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 4.3) was conducted to explore effects of meditation on social connectedness, nature connectedness, and affect. Participants listened to one of three brief guided meditation Mp3 recordings via the internet, which involved mindfulness meditation (MM), loving-kindness meditation (LKM), or progressive muscle relaxation (active control group). Participants in the MM and LKM groups reported greater social and nature connectedness at post-test than those in the control group. There were no significant differences in connectedness between the MM and LKM groups, suggesting they are both effective for enhancing connectedness. There were no significant changes in negative or positive affect at post-test due to the interventions. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Reference: Aspy, D. J., & Proeve, M. (2017). Mindfulness and Loving-Kindness Meditation: Effects on Connectedness to Humanity and to the Natural World. Psychological Reports, 120, 102-117.
Summary: In a recent review, Aspy, Delfabbro, and Proeve (2015) highlighted the tendency for retrospective measures of dream recall to yield substantially lower recall rates than logbook measures, a phenomenon they termed the retrospective-logbook disparity. One explanation for this phenomenon is that retrospective measures underestimate true dream recall. Another explanation is that keeping a logbook tends to enhance dream recall. The present study provides a thorough empirical investigation into the retrospective-logbook disparity using a range of retrospective and logbook measures and three different types of logbook. Retrospective-logbook disparities were correlated with a range of variables theoretically related to the retrospective underestimation effect, and retrospective-logbook disparities were greater among participants that reported improved dream recall during the logbook period. These findings indicate that dream recall is underestimated by retrospective measures and enhanced by keeping a logbook. Recommendations for the use of retrospective and logbook measures of dream recall are provided.
Reference: Aspy, D. J. (2016). Is dream recall underestimated by retrospective measures and enhanced by keeping a logbook? An empirical investigation. Consciousness and Cognition, 42, 181-203.
Summary: There are two methods commonly used to measure dream recall in the home setting. The retrospective method involves asking participants to estimate their dream recall in response to a single question and the logbook method involves keeping a daily record of one’s dream recall. Until recently, the implicit assumption has been that these measures are largely equivalent. However, this is challenged by the tendency for retrospective measures to yield significantly lower dream recall rates than logbooks. A common explanation for this is that retrospective measures underestimate dream recall. Another is that keeping a logbook enhances it. If retrospective measures underestimate dream recall and if logbooks enhance it they are both unlikely to reflect typical dream recall rates and may be confounded with variables associated with the underestimation and enhancement effects. To date, this issue has received insufficient attention. The present review addresses this gap in the literature.
Reference: Aspy, D. J., Delfabbro, P., & Proeve, M. (2015). Is dream recall underestimated by retrospective measures and enhanced by keeping a logbook? A review. Consciousness and Cognition, 33, 364-374.
The Senses Initiated Lucid Dream (SSILD) technique: Additional findings from the National Australian Lucid Dream Induction Study.
Summary: The present study investigated a novel cognitive lucid dream induction technique: the Senses Initiated Lucid Dream (SSILD) technique. Participants were 21 people who agreed to participate in a trial of an additional technique after completing the National Australian Lucid Dream Induction Study (NALDIS; Aspy, Delfabbro, Proeve & Mohr, 2017). After completing the pre-test questionnaire, Week 1 baseline logbook period and Week 2 experimental period of the NALDIS, participants practiced the SSILD technique for one week. Results indicated that the SSILD technique was effective for inducing lucid dreams. Participants experienced lucid dreaming on 14.7% of nights during Week 3, which was 54.1% higher than in Week 1. Findings provide further evidence that the conditions that give rise to superior general dream recall are conducive to lucid dreaming. Avenues for future research are discussed.
Reference: Aspy, D. J. (n.d.). The Senses Initiated Lucid Dream (SSILD) technique: Additional findings from the National Australian Lucid Dream Induction Study. Currently under peer review.